The endosseous implant is certainly the most common
Endosteal implantology is much more widespread, uses cylinder or cone-shaped implants, more or less threaded on the outside and with variously shaped internal connections to support emerging abutments. Less frequently, implants are cylinders or cones without external threads, but with similar internal connections to support abutments, or screws with emerging heads machined as single pieces, therefore without any connections, or blades, or needles. Based on surgical protocol, we may have submerged or transmucosal implantology. Based on the time of use we may have immediate, early or deferred load.
Endosteal implantology is basically subdivided into two important schools: the Italian school and the Swedish school. Italian school implantology historically preceded the Swedish school, is less widespread, but conceptually just as important as the Swedish one.
The Italian school introduced the first implant specifically designed for immediate load, titanium for implant fabrication (Stefano M. Tramonte), the concept of biological space around implant bodies, and the intraoral welder (PL. Mondani).
The Swedish school introduced the osteointegration method, first developed by Invar Branemark, based on deferred load and aiming at making the implantological surgery more predictable. It utilizes endosteal, screw shaped implants with prosthetic connection, deferred load, which imposes a waiting time of 3 to 4 months in the mandible and 5 to 6 months in the maxilla. The original Branemark protocol and the implants utilized have been modified in various ways to shorten implant waiting times, and, in general, treatment times. The Swedish school has introduced very important innovations in production and surgical techniques: surface treatments for implant surfaces, tissue regeneration techniques for bone and mucosa, vertical and horizontal augmentation techniques. In general, the Swedish school has introduced surgical techniques aimed at making implant sites more adequate for the placement of their implants, because, by their very nature, they are less adaptable to anatomical conditions than the Italian school implants.
The material most frequently used for implant production is titanium, in commercially pure form or in its dental alloys. This is a biocompatible material that does not elicit any reaction from patient’s tissues (commonly known as rejection). Implants, positioned in the patient’s bone, are strongly incorporated in it by physiological bone regeneration actions, bringing to osteointegration, both in the case of deferred load (Swedish school) and in the case of immediate load (Italian school).
Into implantology school is historically Italian front, the less widespread but conceptually just as important as the second. The Italian school we owe the introduction of the first plant specifically designed for immediate loading, the introduction of titanium in the production of plants (Stephen M. Tramonte), the introduction of the respect of the biological implant structure, and the welding intraoral (PL. Mondani).
Into the Swedish school should be the method of osseointegration, developed first by Per-Ingvar Branemark, based on the delayed loading and aiming to make it more controllable success of implant treatment: involves the use of endosseous implants and screw a prosthetic connection with delayed loading, or after a 'waiting for 3-4 months for the mandible and the maxilla 5-6.
Into The original Branemark protocol has been modified in various ways as well as the equipment used, to shorten the time of retirement of the plant and the general time of treatment.
The Swedish school has produced important innovations in both manufacturing technology and in the surgical techniques: adoption of surface treatments for implant structure, tissue and bone regeneration techniques that mucosal augmentation techniques, both vertically and horizontally and in general all those surgical techniques designed to make the most appropriate implant site all'inserzioni of these systems, by their nature far less adaptable to the anatomical conditions of the plants of the Italian school.
Into the most used material for the production of implants is titanium in commercially pure form or in alloys for dental use, biocompatible material that does not involve reactions by the body (popularly but erroneously known as rejection).
Into The plants, placed in the bone of the patient will be strongly embedded to it by the physiological mechanisms of bone regeneration, ie the osseointegration will take place both in case of delayed loading (Swedish school) and in the case of immediate loading (Italian school).
Eversince the American Dental Society (SAD) approved the use of dental implants hundreds of thousands of people benefited from the procedure.
The phenomenon of osseointegration, which literally means that the implant grows with the bone in which it is placed, provides a fixed support allowing people to chew carefree and effectively even if they are lacking their natural teeth.